those substances that should be included in the product. Though
the best way to do this is to have a detailed knowledge about the
impacts of a particular substance on ecological and human systems
throughout its life cycle, this is often impractical or even impossible.
Furthermore, different substances have different types of impacts.
Should a company prefer a substance which is potentially sensitizing
or one which is persistent in the environment; a substance that may
contribute to global warming or one that might end up harming
Step 3: The passive positive list
Step 3 includes a systematic assessment of each ingredient in a product
Effectiveness 18 4/2017 eFOOD-Lab international
to classify them according to their toxicological and eco-toxicological
characteristics, especially their capability to flow within
biological and technical metabolisms. For products of consumption,
criteria to examine shouldinclude for instance: toxicity to humans
(acute, delayed, developmental, reproductive), aquatic toxicity,
persistence and bioaccumulation in nature, sensitization potential,
mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and endocrine disruption potential.
Based upon the assessment of a material or chemical according to
these criteria, a passive positive list can be generated which classifies
each substance according to its suitability for the biological metabolism.
This list can be used to determine the degree of additional
optimization necessary for a particular product to be a true product
Step 4: The active positive list
Step 4 includes the optimization of the passive positive list to the
point until each ingredient in the product is positively defined as a biological
or technical nutrient. Whereas step 3 establishes knowledge
of the degree to which each component in a product needs to be
optimized, step 4 implements this optimization to the fullest degree.
Climatex® Lifecycle™ upholstery fabric is an example of a product
whose constituent materials are positively defined as biological nutrients.
Created in a collaboration amongst EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung
GmbH, McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry and
Rohner Textil, Climatex® Lifecycle™ is a completely biodegradable and
compostable fabric. Each component was selected according to EPEA’s
positive listing methodology for its positive environmental and human
health characteristics and its suitability as a biological nutrient.
The fabric is made from natural fibers, including wool from freeranging,
humanely sheared New Zealand sheep, and Ramie, a tall,
fibrous plant grown in Asia. To identify suitable dyes for the fabric, 60
major dye producers were asked to provide the necessary information
on their best dyes to enable an assessment of their suitability as
biological nutrients. From a selection of 1600 dye formulations, EPEA
utilized their methodology to identify 16 that met both the desired
technical and environmental specifications2.
The optimization of the materials and dyes used in the product
also has an impact upon the environmental profile of the production
process. Before eco-effective optimization of the product, trimmings
from the mill were classified as hazardous waste requiring special (and
expensive) disposal. After optimization, waste material from the mill
could be made into felt to be used as garden mulch, and in the cultivation
of strawberries, cucumbers and a wide range of other plants.
Step 4 also applies for products of service. An automobile, for instance,
might be designed so all of the materials and components it
contains are biological or technical nutrients. Brake pads, tires and
interior upholstery might be designed as biological nutrients because
these are components that will likely degrade over the period of use
of the car. The frame and body, on the other hand, might optimally
be designed as technical nutrients like steel and polypropylene so
they can be regained and upcycled into new automobile components
or other products after the use period of the car.
Step 5: Reinvention
Where step 4 stops at the level of redefining the substances in a
product, step 5 involves a reinvention of the relationship of the
Component Analytical result Dimension CAS-Nr.
Trimethysilanol 20000 ng/h 1066-40-6
Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxan 12000 ng/h 541-05-9
Hexanal 7400 ng/h 66-25-1
Oktamethylcyclotetrasiloxan 36000 ng/h 556-67-2
Cyclohexanon 13000 ng/h 108-94-1
2-Ethyl-1-hexanol 110000 ng/h 104-76-7
Limonen 35000 ng/h 138-86--3
Dekamethylcyclopentasiloxan 44000 ng/h 541-02-6
Nonanal 68000 ng/h 124-19-6
Dodekan 29000 ng/h 112-40-3
Ethylanilin 28000 ng/h 103-69-5
Dodekamethylcyclohexasiloxan 150000 ng/h 540-97-6
Tridekan 38000 ng/h 629-50-6
Benzothiazol 28000 ng/h 95-16-9
Tetradekan 56000 ng/h 629-59-4
Tetradekamethylcycloheptasiloxan 270000 ng/h 107-50-6
Pentadekan 46000 ng/h 629-62-9
The results of an off gassing test of a typical silicone based ice cube tray.