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Figure 3: Mapping of business process. tion from the Sensor service – to get the production and storage conditions of the item being queried. It then creates a single, human readable report as a standard HTML web page, which uses CSS to allow appropriate formatting for the device on which it is read. The ability to track products using this system requires the prior characterisation of the business process and selection of the points at which identity needs to be captured. The project developed a methodology for doing this using standard business process mapping techniques. A typical process map produced is shown in figure 3. In order to use this system a supplier needs to identify a means of linking an identity to each unit of production and put readers at appropriate points to monitor the transformations which happen in the production process (for instance, the butchering of a carcass into joints of meat or the mixing of minced meat with other ingredients to make sausages). The readers are arranged to output data to an EPCIS repository, allowing the three services described to produce complete traces of the items being produced. In the case of a production line including several enterprises, the trace service automatically links those independent businesses to 18 2/14 eFOOD-Lab international produce a complete trace. If one company in a production chain does not participate there is a gap in the record, but the data from all those that do is available. A key aspect of the system is that it should be commercially viable without need for enforcing legislation. It is viable because it adds value to the products, which it is applied to. It allows the origin of products to be clearly demonstrated to the consumer, along with important quality indicators. This allows the price of such products to be better supported, because consumers gain additional confidence in the quality and authenticity of what they are buying. The self-linking nature of the system confers this advantage also to ingredient suppliers. Although they have no direct contact with the consumer, participation in the system allows the companies using their product to give an end-to-end trace, thus giving more value than do ingredients suppliers who do not provide traceability. Experience with live implementations of the system has shown this to lead to a further benefit. The system automatically links supply chains, mitigating some of the consequences of the fragmentation typical in the food industry. Thus a purchaser buying meat on the open market might use the same system to check the authenticity of what he is buying and that information will ultimately be passed on to the consumer. Also, in standing supply chains, better information is available about production conditions downstream and upstream of an independent enterprise, allowing production to be better planned and optimised. In conclusion, the RFID-F2F project showed that there is a better, more robust and inexpensive alternative to the ‘one forward, one back’ records keeping system, one which depends on globally standardised and well proven technology. Its use could provide better security for the consumer and greater efficiency for food producers. Acknowledgents The RFID-F2F project was supported by the Competitiveness and Innovation Programme (CIP) of the European Union. The author would like to acknowledge the work of the members of the project who produced the results reported here, Roberto Santolamazza, Marco Battistella, Anilkumar Dave, Marek Hornak, Piero Filippin, Lynsey Whitfield, Simone Bell, Paul Finglas, Alejandro Alvarez Melcon, Massimo Caprino, Roberta Caso, Liudmila Mukhina, Mira Trebar, Andrej Grah, Miroslav Savić, Rok Češnovar, Luca Catarinucci, Iñigo Cuiñas, Isabel Expósito, José Antonio Gay-Fernández, Ana V. Alejos and Manuel G. Sánchez Food Authentificati on


eFOOD-Lab_International_02_2014
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