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2/14 eFOOD-Lab international 17 st many suppliers and where control of information is seen as very important to some of them. If they wish, each may keep and control their own repository without being required to submit data to a third party. Alternatively, shared repositories may be provided for smaller suppliers. The EPC Information Service stores links between production entities in form of “events”. Each event record specifies the date and time of the event and the location where the event took place. Thus the system can link the items (ingredients) and the events, which transformed them into the final product (including the logistic events which transported products between the various locations, plants, warehouses and retail outlets. In the end, a complete record of the production of the item can be produced and be used to generate the web page, which the consumer sees. The system consists of three separate web services, all of which may be accessed using a web browser. Alternatively they can be used to provide an Application Programming Interface (API) for software applications. The first service is the Identity Service. As explained above, the raw state of the information is as a set of relationships between URIs. This contains all of the required information but is not in a humanfriendly form. The identity service provides a straight-forward interface allowing those maintaining the system to manage and monitor the content, for instance entering new product types and events and defining new transactions. The Identity service can also be used for software linked to the production process to enter the production data into the system. So, for instance, an RFID reader on a factory gate receiving goods inwards triggers the input of the corresponding data into the system via the identity service. Similarly, other readers (including bar code readers and even manual identification and entry) placed through the production and logistic process, build up a complete dataset concerning the production history of each item. The identity service takes care of the entering of that data and of the translation between the different identity carriers (RFID tag, bar code, etc) and formats. The sensors service is essentially open ended, any one of a vast heterogeneous set of sensors may be interfaced. For instance, in the RFID-F2F project, a wireless sensor network was used to monitor growing conditions in a vineyard producing grapes for wine, allowing an indicator of likely vintage quality to be presented to a purchaser. In this case sensors included termperature, humidity and leaf moisture sensors. Some illustrations of this installation are shown in Figure 2. As with the Identity Service, the sensor service is accessed using only a web browser. It provides a consistent structure to collect sensor data. It supports offline data collection. This ability is used for instance in monitoring the cold chain conditions during transport. Sensors in a van detect the cold conditions for the duration of a journey and the data is stored in a small computer in the van. When the van arrives at its destination, the data is offloaded using a WiFi link and the sensors service used to store it in the EPCIS Figure 2: WSN installation in vineyard. repository. The sensors service can be used across business-business boundaries, vital for a fragmented supply chain such as food. It also supports concatenation of events across those boundaries. The outputs are available in industry standard formats and access protocols, including XML and JSONP. Finally, there is the trace service. The trace service is the part of the system that produces the web pages that the consumer will eventually access. The trace service queries the EPCIS – to get the history for an item. It uses the Identity Service to translate identifiers into a human understandable form and resolve multiple identities caused by use of different identity carriers in different parts of the production process. It also collects informa


eFOOD-Lab_International_02_2014
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