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The main limitation of glass encapsulation systems is that they perform well only in low- and intermediate moisture food applications. This is because the glass encapsulation matrix contains a significant amount of low-molecular 28 1/2016 eFOOD-Lab international Innovative Technologies weight carbohydrates, such as sucrose, as this helps to improve the barrier properties. As a consequence, however, these systems exhibit a low glass transition temperature and have limited stability at elevated temperatures and in high-moisture conditions. Successful product reformulations are based on considerations as outlined above. This allows for a rational optimization of the encapsulation systems and a controlled application in foods. This in turn speeds up the time to market while reducing the number of trials needed to arrive at a successful product formulation. References 1 E. Betoret, N. Betoret, D. Vidal, P. Fito, Functional foods development: Trends and technologies, Trends Food Sci Tech, 22 (2011) 498-508. 2 J. Ubbink, J. Kruger, Physical approaches for the delivery of active ingredients in foods, Trends Food Sci Tech, 17 (2006) 244-254. 3 G. Reineccius, C. Yan, Factors controlling the deterioration of spray dried flavourings and unsaturated lipids, Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 31 (2016) 5-21. 4 H.D. Williams, N.L. Trevaskis, S.A. Charman, R.M. Shanker, W.N. Charman, C.W. Pouton, C.J. Porter, Strategies to address low drug solubility in discovery and development, Pharmacological reviews, 65 (2013) 315-499. 5 B.F. Gibbs, S. Kermasha, I. Alli, C.N. Mulligan, Encapsulation in the food industry: a review, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 50 (1999) 213-224. 6 S. Drusch, K. Rätzke, M. Shaikh, Y. Serfert, H. Steckel, M. Scampicchio, I. Voigt, K. Schwarz, S. Mannino, Differences in free volume elements of the carrier matrix affect the stability of microencapsulated lipophilic food ingredients, Food Biophysics, 4 (2009) 42-48. 7 M.T. Cicerone, M.J. Pikal, K.K. Qian, Stabilization of proteins in solid form, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 93 (2015) 14-24. 8 J. Ubbink, Structural and thermodynamic aspects of plasticization and antiplasticization in glassy encapsulation and biostabilization matrices, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (in press), doi:10.1016/j. addr.2015.12.019 (2016). 9 D. Kilburn, J. Claude, T. Schweizer, A. Alam, J. Ubbink, Carbohydrate polymers Figure 6: Application regimes for glass encapsulation systems in the (temperature-water activity) window. The high sucrose system, which is characterized by a low Tg, has a very narrow application window (indicated in dark grey). As however the matrix packing is very dense, in this regime, it provides a very high protection to an encapsulated oxidation-sensitive active ingredient. The low sucrose system, conversely, has a high Tg and a wide application regime (indicated in light grey). The matrix density is however lower than for the high sucrose system, and even though it can be applied under much broader conditions, its overall protective effect is lower than for the high sucrose system. The maximum water activities tolerable for the two encapsulation systems are indicated by the arrows, assuming a Tg of 30 °C. For reference, the Tg line of maltodextrin DE-6 is shown as well. in amorphous states: an integrated thermodynamic and nanostructural investigation, Biomacromolecules, 6 (2005) 864-879. 10 S. Townrow, D. Kilburn, A. Alam, J. Ubbink, Molecular packing in amorphous carbohydrate matrixes, J Phys Chem B, 111 (2007) 12643-12648. 11 M. Roussenova, M. Murith, A. Alam, J. Ubbink, Plasticization, Antiplasticization, and Molecular Packing in Amorphous Carbohydrate-Glycerol Matrices, Biomacromolecules, 11 (2010) 3237-3247. 12 S. Anandaraman, G. Reineccius, Stability of encapsulated orange peel oil, Food Technology (USA), (1986). 13 L. Sagalowicz, M.E. Leser, Delivery systems for liquid food products, Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci., 15 (2010) 61-72. 14 C. Tedeschi, B. Leuenberger, J. Ubbink, Amorphous–amorphous phase separation in hydrophobically-modified starch–sucrose blends I. Phase behavior and thermodynamic characterization, Food Hydrocolloids, 58 (2016) 75-88. Job Ubbink i s Senior Consultant a t Food Concept & Physical Design "The Mill", a strategy and technology company in the service of sustainable food culture. He is a specialist in encapsulation, in the optimization of food processes and in the materials science of foods and food ingredients. Next to his industrial projects, Job Ubbink is teaching food technology at the ETH Zürich.


eFOOD-Lab_International_01_2016
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